Sunday, January 12, 2020

Communication Crisis Essay

Communication and Crisis Many of us know about the devastating hurricane Katrina that took place in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2005, but how many of us actually thought about the communication issues. From the writing of James L Garnett and Alexander Kouzmin,† Hurricane Katrina was as much a communication disaster as it was a natural and bureaucratic disaster. Communication gaps, missed signals, information technology failures, administrative buï ¬â‚¬ering, turf battles, and deliberate and unintentional misinterpretations delayed and handicapped both the recognition of the crisis that Katrina posed and the response to its devastation.† If Americans actually stop and think about it, not only was the media trying to communicate with America on what was happening but also trying to get word out to the people which were affected. Advantages of the communication from the media to some extent helped to obtain as much information and photos to public to help everyone understand what was taken place. To the local community communication challenges took place because Mother Nature does not care about keeping today’s technology in working conditions. Once the power goes down what is the point of technology for citizens in the middle of the disaster area, they cannot receive information on where to go, if help is on the way. Because of Mother Nature’s way of approaching upon so many areas in the United States and around the world each community should start disaster programs to teach each person on survival, there are so many ways to communicate with community in learning techniques. Town meeting is one way to start, give demonstrations on how to take cover from Tornados, Fires and, of course Hurricanes. Most of us were taught in school the basic safety procedures during storms. Common knowledge during a tornado is to take cover in the lowest point of the home such as a basement or if no basement is accessible, then to remove yourself from any windows and doors because of the suction that comes with the storm. During fires go to the nearest exit and go as far away from the fire so no one gets burned or if fire does contact a person to stop drop and roll until the fire is out, in a hurricane tape up all windows in a x shape to keep the winds from scattering glass all over, if he or she lives near water, place sands bags along the shore line to help rising water. All these things can save lives but does everyone know what to do if there is no available hospital’s near because they too were caught in the damage. This is where local doctors, firefighters and police need to communicate their training with the public, as previously said by demonstrations, brochures, feeling the emotions of concerned population in their area. Offering radios that not only work by batteries but can wind up receiving power so the information can get to the area that has been affected. Education on how to make a reserve area in the home or even in a safe and secure place outside of the home of survival materi als such as water, food, clothing the essentials that humans need to live daily. Training on how to contact and find loved ones, and to cope with devastation. As individuals with training on survival we still depend on the doctors and nurses that are available to take charge and because of their years of training they will, but in an area were a natural disaster has taken place technology will not be able to help. All hospitals have back up power but even then that does not last. During hurricane Sandy the New York, NYU Langone Medical Center’s learned this lesson, after the emergency generators turned on within two hours 90 percent of the power was drained. ( Roney, Kathleen) This particular tragedy had the health care industry trying to come up with ways to save and recover data on each patient, and improve back up power to allow the hospitals and equipment to keep functioning. According to the article 4 Tips to Strengthen Hospital Data and Recovery Plans for Natural Disasters the four ideas they have come up with to help the Health Care are 1. Validate third-party data recovery services, 2. Backup data in a safe-place offsite, 3. If possible, prepare and practice with paper-based options, 4. Validate your backup power. ( Roney, Kathleen) In closing no matter how widely the information that comes from the media is right or wrong during a natural disaster, any information giving to the public is better than silence. Many may complain after all is said and done on how not all the information was correct but enough was, it helps the loved ones watching because that may be the only communication available. The more our community offers in knowledge through all stages of communication the better each and every one will be prepared. It is said to say but with all the modern day technology that we depend on it takes Americans to get shook up a little to see that even the new evolving world still needs solutions. References Garnett, J. L., & Kouzmin, A. (December,2007). Communicating throughout Katrina: Competing and Complementary Conceptual Lenses on Crisis Communication. Retrieved from Roney, K. (November 02,2012). 4 Tios to Strengthen Hospital Data Recovery Plans for Natural Disasters. Retrieved from

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Explain the Causes and Consequences of the Iraq War

Explain the causes and consequences of the Iraq War (2003) On the 20th of March 2003, US cruise missiles and bombs were dropped on Baghdad, Iraq’s capital city. The target was the then Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein’s and his closest aides, who were believed to be in a meeting. It would be the start of a conflict that would still be going strong seven years later. Even after so many years of US-led invasion, the reasons for invading Iraq are still debated worldwide. As Allawi (2007) argues ‘in the history of conflicts and wars, there are few instances that match the invasion and occupation for complexity of motive and ambiguity of purpose’[1]. As a result, the Iraq War or otherwise known as ‘Operation Iraqi freedom’ was to become one of†¦show more content†¦Crisis talks were held with the leaders of the US, UK and Spain resulting in the withdrawal of the resolution. The very same evening, President Bush televised a live conference warning that if Saddam Hussein did not leave Iraq in 48 hours the result would be ‘military conflict commenced at the time of our choosing’[9]. Therefore the main cause of the Iraq War was the threat of Saddam Hussein’s claimed WMDs. Prior to the invasion, American policy makers also emphasised ‘the broad benefits likely to result from the removal of Saddam Hussein’s authoritarian regime into a ‘cultivation of a democratic regime’[10]. They argued that democratization of Iraq would improve the well being of Iraqi citizens, politically and economically. Furthermore, and perhaps most importantly, the democratization of Iraq would help stimulate greater economic prosperity and promote further democracy in the rest of the middle east - a region historically characterised by authoritarian governments where there is a wide spread of conflict, instability and widespread poverty[11]. Moreover it was claimed that the democratization of Iraq would set the stage for the settlement of conflicts that had plagued the Middle Eastern region for decades which would mean the chance to create lasting peace.[12] This next section will examine theShow MoreRelatedThe Main Idea Of The Article The Aquinas Inquiry, Is To1235 Words   |  5 PagesThe Aquinas Inquiry, is to explain or kind of conclude what a medieval philosophers panel would look like and how they would feel about the invasion of Iraq, Tony Blair’s decisions, and Saddam Hussein and determine the reasons. â€Å"The members of the ‘Aquinas Inquiry’ have already developed a set of six criteria which should be met in order for any war to be considered just.† The set of criteria will be used in this article to determine whether or not Tony Blair had just cause.   Ã‚  Ã‚   The author of thisRead MoreThe Iran Iraq War1566 Words   |  7 PagesThe Iran-Iraq lasted from September 1980 to August 1998, which made it the longest conventional war of the 20th century. The consequence of the war cost billions of dollars and millions of lives. The result of the war, although stalemate would be a critical factor that would shape the future of the Middle East. The historical deep-rooted hostile relationship that emanated from the ethnic Arab-Persian and religious Sunni- Shi’ite tensions between the two neighbouring countries contributed to the conditionsRead MoreThe Representation Of The Government Politics Model Essay1524 Words   |  7 PagesAmerica’s decision to invade Iraq and overthrow Saddam Hussein in 2003, only one model sufficiently explains the decision. The Rational Actor Model only evaluates the nation’s actions as one entity and does not look at any of the organizational or individual behaviors that contributed to the decision. On the other hand, the Organizational Behavior Model explores the processes that supported the war’s justification and developed the military’s recommendation, but does not explain why the administrationRead MoreVeteran Mental Illness and System Justification Theory1461 Words   |  6 PagesVeteran Mental Illness and System Justification Theory Rates of mental illness are rising among Veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. This social problem has had significant consequences, such as spikes in homelessness, unemployment and suicides in this population. Many argue there are too many barriers to mental health treatment in a society that stigmatizes mental illness and undervalues mental health care. Research supports this assertion, particularly within the Veteran population (Greene-ShortridgeRead MoreWar Againsts Iraq: The Media, Its Portrayal of the War and the Effect of Its Perspective1374 Words   |  6 PagesWar against Iraq By Olivier Gaudreau When the US initiated the 2003 invasion of Iraq, it gave the justification that the Iraqi dictator, Saddam aided the perpetrators of the September 11 attack on United States soil. The Bush administration also accused Saddam of engineering a nuclear program and amassing destructive weapons. All the US justification and the entire war have been highly criticized on many fronts. The media has taken the lead on shaping public opinion on both sides of the war, thatRead MoreRhetorical Analysis of President’s Address To The Nation Post 9/111668 Words   |  7 PagesMiddle East policy. Nonetheless, the U.S. has been involved in the middle-east struggle for more than half of the century, wars were waged and citizens were killed. Yet, political struggles and ideological conflicts are now worse than they were under Clinton’s presidency. As â€Å"President’s Address to the Nation† is a speech asking everybody to support the troops to keep fighting in Iraq, I, as an a udience, am not persuaded at all because of his illogical fallacy in the arguments. In this essay, I will analyzeRead MoreGeorge Santayana Once Said, â€Å"Those Who Do Not Remember1081 Words   |  5 Pagesthe same unpleasant consequences. It appears that history has not taught our society much and humanity is condemned to live and experience history with rather unpredictable turbulence. War has been a common theme that people from the past has been faced with and a common theme we fear today. There are many factors that lead societies into war whether between themselves or other countries. If we were to examine each war including today’s possible threats and list their causes we would be able toRead MoreThe Things They Carried By Tim O Brien1737 Words   |  7 PagesAfterlife of War Tim O’Brien’s â€Å"The Things They Carried† is based on what soldiers went through facing war, and what they carried physically as well as emotionally. All of this pressure from war can cause and has caused post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the soldiers. â€Å"PTSD is the development of a set of symptoms in the aftermath of psychologically distressing event—an event â€Å"outside the range of normal human experience.†Ã¢â‚¬  (Roberts 3). PTSD is a disorder that can happen to anyone, but manyRead More`` What Every Soldier Should Know `` By Brian Turner877 Words   |  4 Pagesthem. However, soldiers’ path consists of many struggles that might threaten their life. Wrong move can cause solders to lose their life and that shows how serious being a soldier is. Brian Turner in his poem â€Å"What Every Soldier Should Know† talked about soldiers’ life and gave some instructions regarding soldiers’ security. The poem also described the environment surrounding soldiers in wars and how the battlefield was. The poet concerned about American soldiers since the writer is American. TheRead MoreEssay on Will There Be Peace in the Middle East1461 Words   |  6 PagesIs peace possible in the Middle East? This question weighs heavy on the minds of many individuals and international players. Turmoil and conflict in the Middle East not only affects the people inhabiting this region, but also has global consequences. To answer this question, one must analyze the sources of conflict in the Middle East, historically, currently, and in the future. The limited amount of natural resources in this region has arguably served as the most major source of conflict in the Middle

Friday, December 27, 2019

Progressivism And Social Criticism In The Progressive Era

The Progressive Era The Progressive Era was an influential period in history, as it protected social welfare, created an economic reform, and overall, promoted moral improvement. Progressivism has propelled people into the modern world, in which people are treated equally and the business relations do not interrupt the political decisions, or the government. Most importantly, if the concept of progressivism did not exist, our business industry would not have thrived, labor conditions would not have changed, women would not have equal rights as men, and overall, there would have been no idea, as to social activism and a political reform. During the Progressive Era, American industrialists began making themselves known through their†¦show more content†¦Basically, the Great Depression was going on, so there was unemployment, and people needed money. Parents had no option but to send their children to work, without concerning towards their health. Eventually, the reformers and labor organizers helped take a stand, helping to place restrictions on child labor, involving the hours they worked for and the conditions they worked in. Primary school education then led to becoming a necessity for children., after the Fair Labor Standards Act was passed in 1938, leading to many states establishing a minimum wage and a max number of hours for labor. Comparing this to today, if child labor had not come to an end, many children would be deprived of the right to education and given time for recreation. Overall, the people who made themselves heard through protests influenced the children immensely today, as they would have spent their time working for wealthy businessmen for no benefit, and there would be no concept as to minimum wage and a healthy work environment. Additionally, inequality of women that was ongoing for several years, ultimately reached a change, with the Woman Suffrage. The Women’s Suffrage was the right of woman to vote and to stand for elec toral college. This had many objections, which was mainly coming from the men, the husbands of the women, who regarded the grant of such rights as useless and insignificant. Among the anti-suffragists were also women themselves, who went againstShow MoreRelated Various Interpretations of the Progressive Era Essay2820 Words   |  12 Pagesâ€Å"What was the Progressive Movement?†[1] Historian Peter G. Filene presents this question in his article, â€Å"An Obituary for ‘The Progressive Movement’†, in order to introduce the reality that for decades scholars struggled to propose an answer to this question. They have and still do struggle because there are many ways to consider this question and qualify the Progressive Era: such as its definition, time frame, significant turning points and important people, goals, successes, and failures. GivenRead MoreEssay about Interpreting American Progressivism2954 Words   |  12 PagesInterpreting American Progres sivism The period referred to as the Progressive Era in American history is one which historians often disagree over, and as in all areas of history, there are many theories surrounding the era which sometimes contradict each other. Historians are always aware of prominent theories within the field, and they often participate in an ongoing dialogue concerning their research. One of the first historians to make a major mark regarding the Progressive Era was Richard HofstadterRead MoreThe Conflict Of The American Civil Rights Movement Essay1309 Words   |  6 Pagesintellectual. In Moses’s view, DuBois is more complicated than other leading Black figures. He notes that DuBois is a Progressive but even some of his ideas are different such as his â€Å"double consciousness†. Like Lewis, Moses invokes the religious connections in DuBois’s message to the people. He writes, â€Å"DuBois progressivism†¦ was a secularized social gospel with roots in†¦ Social Chris tianity†. Again, another historians draws parallels between his message and religion, using it to uplift African-AmericansRead MoreThe Progressive Movement Of American Society2848 Words   |  12 PagesQuestion # 1 Intro 1) Background-The Progressive Movement was an effort to cure many of the ills of American society that had developed during the great spurt of industrial growth in the last quarter of the 19th century. Progressives were mostly middle-class citizens who saw corruption and wanted change in society. 2) Topic 1- The frontier had been tamed, great cities and businesses developed, and an overseas empire established, but not all citizens shared in the new wealth, prestige, and optimismRead MoreThe Great Depression And World War II2840 Words   |  12 PagesAmerican nation to one all could be proud of. His social programs during the Great Depression redefined the role of government in Americans lives. His role during World War II established the United States leadership on the world stage. During the twelve years in the White House, Roosevelt set a precedent for the expansion of presidential power and redefined liberalism for future generations. His proposed â€Å"New Deal† economic reform, inspired by Progressive tradition, paved a path of several opportunitiesRead MoreA Brief Note On Women s Suffrage Movement1379 Words   |  6 PagesRough Draft Woman’s Suffrage Movement During the early 19th century many women were involved in social advocacy efforts, which eventually led them to advocate for their own right to vote and take part in government agencies. Women fought for their voices to be heard in politics. The 19th amendment was one of the most essential turning points in history; before their voices were not as valuable as their husbands or fathers, until 1920 when the 19th amendment was ratified and gave us a new beginningRead More The Progressive Era Essay2711 Words   |  11 PagesThe Progressive Era was a period that exposed the contradictions found in American society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Theodore Roosevelt summed up the Progressive/Reform feeling in his Square Deal speech - that it was all about morals, not economics. His goal was the moral regeneration of the business world. He preached that it was wrong for some people to get ahead in business and politics by tricks and schemes, while others were cheated out of the opportunity. ThisRead MorePride and Prejudice Research Paper2598 Words   |  11 PagesAmber Kakish Professor Davis English 1A 12 December 2011 A Progressive Work in a Conservative Time Pride and Prejudice, a Jane Austen novel, is one of the most classical pieces of literature in history. It has been evaluated and critiqued a countless number of times, and has been adapted into several films. It can be argued that there is a lot to be retained by readers from this literary work, an important message that can be passed down from generation to generation. During Jane Austen’s timeRead MoreHistory 122 Midterm Study Questions Essay3296 Words   |  14 Pagesb)   it underscored the tensions produced by the rapid industrialization of the time. Question 23 (1 point) The Knights of Labor: a)   was an inclusive organization that advocated for a vast array of reforms. Question 24 (1 point) The Social Gospel: d)   called for an equalization of wealth and power. Question 25 (1 point) The Haymarket Affair: e)   was provoked by the 1886 bombing at a Chicago labor rally. Study Quiz Chapter 17 Question 1 0 / 1 point FarmersRead More21st Century Learning And Progressive Education2967 Words   |  12 Pages Research Paper 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education Marisa Girimonte D’Youville College EDU 656 Dr. Gheorghita Faitar November, 24, 2014 â€Æ' 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education The first decade and a half of the twenty-first century is soon approaching and society, including educators is faced to reflect on the importance of keeping up with the rapidly changing world. Proponents of the 21st Century Learning are addressing ways how American education can keep

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Rene Descartes - Existence of God Essay - 1961 Words

Rene Descartes third meditation from his book Meditations on First Philosophy, examines Descartes arguments for the existence of God. The purpose of this essay will be to explore Descartes reasoning and proofs of Gods existence. In the third meditation, Descartes states two arguments attempting to prove Gods existence, the Trademark argument and the traditional Cosmological argument. Although his arguments are strong and relatively truthful, they do no prove the existence of God. At the start of the meditation, Descartes begins by rejecting all his beliefs, so that he would not be deceived by any misconceptions from reaching the truth. Descartes acknowledges himself as, a thing that thinks: that is, a thing that doubts, affirms,†¦show more content†¦Our senses display that the sun is a small object. Astronomy projects that the sun is a large object. It is an example of A Priori vs. A Posteriori or Reason vs. Perception. Descartes concludes that the source of our ideas is in the mind using our reason, not our senses. Almost everything that we believe to be true is through perception. However, the senses are sometimes deceptive. Presume that everything our senses tell us is false. Descartes points out that we have dreams regularly and in those dreams, everything we experience is not real in the physical sense. It is reasonable to doubt everything our senses tell us. Using similar logic, we can say that everything we have learned from physics, astronomy, medicine, and other such fields are all doubtful. Descartes even believed simple logical statements such as 2 + 3 = 5 or a square has 4 sides could be conceived as false. Through the theory of innate ideas, Descartes believed that God, eternal, infinite, omniscient, omnipotent, and the Creator of all things which are in addition to Himself caused the idea of God in his mind. When a manufacturer creates a product, he stamps his name or logo to the product. At the moment of his creation, God imposed the idea of himself in the mind of Descartes. In other words, God stamped the innate idea of Himself into Descartes mind at birth. If God caused this idea to be in his mind, and all ideas are clear and distinct, God exists. ThisShow MoreRelated Renà © Descartes Argument on the Existence of God Essay1528 Words   |  7 PagesRenà © Descartes Argument on the Existence of God The problem with Renà © Descartes argument about the existence of God has to do with his rationalist deductive reasoning. Descartes deduces that truth about the existence of God lies within his idea of a perfect God and Gods essence (as a perfect being who must exist in order to be perfect). A rationalist philosopher, Descartes discounts human knowledge as a product of our sensory data (our senses) but supports the epistemological stance thatRead MoreEssay Rene Descartess View on God1300 Words   |  6 PagesRene Descartess View on God      Ã‚  Ã‚   In 1996, songwriter Joan Osborne performed a song called One of Us that was nominated for three Grammy Awards.   What made this song so successful and interesting were the powerful lyrics that basically asked, What if God were a human being?   As she was writing the lyrics to One of Us, she was wondering about God and how the world would be different if God did exist in real life and not just a supernatural force.   You may be asking yourself, What doesRead MoreThomas Aquinas vs. Descarates Essays673 Words   |  3 Pagesphilosophers Thomas Aquinas’s and Rene Descartes used the method of ontological argument for the existence of God and used intuition and reason alone to get to each other’s theory. Rene Descartes wrote out several mediations, but the one we’re going to touch base on is meditation III that he wrote in the 1600’s; While Thomas Aquinas’s wrote his five proofs of God in 1270 that specifies God’s existence in e ach proof; the one that gives the best argument is the existence of God in his III proof. While bothRead MoreAnalyzing the Surprise Ending in Descartes Discourse on the Method and the Meditations1051 Words   |  4 PagesSurprise Ending in Descartes In the book Discourses on the Method and the Meditations, author Rene Descartes famously questions the existence of humanity. His most famous quotation, the one for whom he is most remembered is I think therefore I am (Descartes 11). According to this idea, so long as a being has the ability to think then they existed. Animals have brains and therefore they must exist. In order to truly, exist, to be a thinking entity, a person or organism must utilize the abilityRead MoreDescartes : The Father Of Modern Philosophy1055 Words   |  5 Pagesthe fact that I am something.† (Descartes, â€Å"Meditations on First Philosophy,† 182) Rene Descartes is widely considered the father of modern philosophy. He created many new ideas about the self, which is something that has been contested since the dawn of philosophy. Even now, the world is nowhere near a unified thought on the soul. Descartes is most famous for addressing this, and is often summarized by the famous â€Å"Cogito Ergo Sum (I think, therefore I am)†Descartes offers a great deal of importantRead MoreThe French Philosopher Rene Descartes Essay1068 Words   |  5 PagesFrench Philosopher Rene Descartes The French philosopher Rene Descartes lived from 1596-1650. He was the son of an aristocrat and traveled throughout Europe studying a wide-variety of subjects including math, science, law, medicine, religion, and philosophy. Descartes was greatly influenced by other thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment. Descartes was a rationalistRead More Descartes Essay1269 Words   |  6 Pages In the early 17th century a philosopher named Descartes, questioned his existence. His life was dedicated to the founding of a philosophical and mathematical system in which all sciences were logical. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Descartes was born in 1596 in Touraine, France. His education consisted of attendance to a Jesuit school of La Fleche. He studied a liberal arts program that emphasized philosophy, the humanities, science, and math. He then went on to the University of Poitiers whereRead MoreA Brief Look at Rene Descartes829 Words   |  3 Pages Rene Descartes was a brilliant man who came up with many inventions and thoughts to put in people’s minds and let them ponder off and question life in itself. In one of the many things Rene Descartes created, he wrote a book called Discourse on the Method and Meditations. Descartes discusses how there are two main proofs of God’s existence, the casual argument in meditation three and the ontological argument in meditation five. There are a few differences between these two meditations and one isRead MorePropelling Rational Thought Over Compelling Empiricism1459 Words   |  6 Pages In this paper I intend to examine the rationalist philosophy of Rene Descartes and fundamental empiricism of John Locke’s philosophical arguments, in particular their ideas relating to the science of man, his identity and attempt to explain distinctions between the two. As I lay the framework of my argument it is important to understand the precepts that serve as the underpinning for the views considered by Descartes and Locke respectively. Rationalism and empiricism are two modes of thoughtRead MoreThe Life of Rene’ Descartes: His Works and His Beliefs in God1578 Words   |  7 PagesWas Rene’ Descartes just a visionary of truth, mathematical equations or was he truly a man that knew he was born to tell the world about life, knowledge, and how it all came together metaphorically? Please see the research on Rene’ Descartes cited accomplishments. Descartes was known as the first modern philosopher. Famous for making a connection between geometry and algebra, which allowed for solving of geometrical problem by way of algebraic equations, which promoted a new conception of matter

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Sample on Difference Between Criminal And Civil Law

Question: Describe about the Difference Between Criminal and Civil Law? Answer: 1. I shall advise Tom to take civil action against James. This is because there are certain rights and duties of citizens to one another and when such duties are not obliged by, then necessary civil action can be taken (Peter, 2013)1. James has a civil duty to remove the loose branches of his tree from the area owned by Tom. Civil law deals with resolving the private disputes between private parties. This case involves torts which is a legal wrongdoing done to the safety of an individual and shall be directed under civil case (Skwirk)2. 2. Tom shall take tort of negligence as the cause of action against James as he neglected his duty to act in the manner required which has ultimately caused damage to the property owned by Tom. This is due to negligence on the part of James even after various letters and reminders given by Tom. He shall be liable for the lack of necessary action taken by him which has caused harm to property owned by Tom. This is legally recognized harm. In 1932, the case of Donoghue v Stevenson 3 brought about the concept of law of negligence and it has been developed since then. The duty of care by the defendant to the plaintiff was introduced and determined in the case. The breach of such duty and the damages caused was also discussed (Law Vision Pty Ltd, 2008)4. 3. The tort of negligence shall take place where the defendant owes a duty of care and he has done breach of that duty. The three elements of tort of negligence by which Tom, the plaintiff shall be successful to make James, defendant liable are : A duty of care: There is a duty of reasonable care which should be taken by the defendant to the plaintiff. James was required to take reasonable care of attending the problem brought forward by Tom, of loose branches hanging over Toms fence. A breach of that duty by the defendant : The defendant shall be stated to have done breach of duty as he has not taken required standard of care of taking into consideration various letters issued by Tom of hanging branches of his tree on his roof causing potential damage to his property or family. Even after the physical visit of Tom at James house of branches crashing against the roof of Toms garage due to winds, James did not give consideration to it and conducted breach of duty of care of a neighbor. Damage to the plaintiff should be associated with the default done. Due to negligence on the part of James, Tom had to ultimately face physical loss of his roof and huge loss to his car (Law Vision Pty Ltd, 2008)4. 5. Tom has good chances of being successful as he has proof of various letters issued by him to James and also notice for compensation of damages caused due to James tree. He can file a civil case against James and ask for compensation of damages suffered by him due to breach of duty of care as a neighbor. References: Peter, 2013, Whats the Difference Between Criminal and Civil Law?, Available From [17 March 2015]. Skwirk, Criminal law and civil law, Available From[17 March 2015]. Donoghue v Stevenson 1932 AC 562 Law Vision Pty Ltd, 2008, Available From[17 March 2015].

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Science and Shamanism Essay Example

Science and Shamanism Paper Just like Science, Shamanism started a very long time ago. As Shamanism is considered as archaic magico-religious phenomenon in which the shaman is the great master of ecstasy, Science is also known as an ancient part of life in which its masters are called Natural Philosophers and later are known as Scientists. There are many commonalities and similarities between Science and Shamanism. Shamanism without their knowing also incorporates scientific methods while performing and making potions from herbs. Same with Shamans, Scientist also perform tasks and experiments by using special tools. Both Shamanism and Science respond to society’s needs. A very good example is by healing. Scientist conduct experiments and tests to discover medicines that can cure illness just like shamans. Thus, we can say that Science and Shamanism somewhat are related to each other, but however there are still factors that keep them apart. First, Shamanism in terms of healing is not really accepted by western Science, why? Because both of them can heal certain patients their sources of healing are undoubtedly very different. Shamanism is a range of beliefs, rituals and practices regarding communication with the spiritual world. We will write a custom essay sample on Science and Shamanism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Science and Shamanism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Science and Shamanism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer They heal people by mending souls. Shaman gains knowledge or power to heal an individual by entering the spiritual world or its dimension. The shaman may acquire many spirit guides in the spirit world, these guides direct the shaman in his/her travels. The spirits are always present in the Shaman though others only encounter one when there is a Shaman around. The Shaman heals by returning lost parts of the human soul from wherever they have gone to. The Shaman also cleanses excess negative energies which confuse or pollute the soul. Science on the other hand is a systematic enterprise of knowledge about nature and organizing and condensing that knowledge into testable laws and theories. These laws and theories are used by scientist to invent things and cure diseases by making medicines and vaccines. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms. Since Science is a complex branch of understanding and has many fields of expertise, thus Scientist don’t call or rely on spirits but rather use scientific knowledge. Scientists study different fields of science to gain knowledge and use that knowledge to help people. This knowledge is used in biomedical research. Biomedical research is a research concerning medicines that cure people scientifically unlike shamans that use spirits in healing. This is another factor that sets shamanism apart from science. Another factor that sets Science and Shamanism apart is the basic implicit principle in Shamanism that there are two realities and that the perception of each depends upon ones state of consciousness. In this principle 2 realities are stated. The first is â€Å"OR† or â€Å"ordinary reality† in which those in the ordinary state of consciousness (OSC) are the ones that are involved in this. Scientists and ordinary people are considered to belong in this â€Å"OR†. On the other hand Shamans believe that they do have another kind of reality. They call this the â€Å"NOR† or non-ordinary reality in which those in the â€Å"shamanic state of consciousness† (SSC) are the only ones who can experience this. And lastly, people who believe that Science is more accurate never relied on Shamanism. Not only in medical purposes but also in anything that Science can prove and study. Thus, a boundary between people who believe in Science and the ones who have faith in Shamanism is made. Since Scientists study things very carefully before ordinary people deal with it, most of the western people believe that Shamanism is just a fiction. On the other hand the ones who believe in Shamanism also think the same way western people think. Because of this line people who have their own beliefs never tried or tested both. A very great example is during ancient times. Since then Science never believed and accepted that spirits are real. Historical origins prove the attacks of the Church on such pioneering scientists as Galileo and Copernicus during the Renaissance and Reformation. Up to the present Scientist never believed spirits. One of the great scientists that never believed spirits is Einstein. He believed spirits or souls are otherwise anathema and not acceptable as part of the paradigm. This results to the limitation of the parameters of science by decreeing that certain prior phenomena cannot have existence. It also resulted to limitation of science whose Achilles heel is founded upon an unproven belief: the belief that spirits, including souls, cannot exists. Science has never disproven the theory of the existence of spirits. Thus, disproof of theory, or falsification, is a cornerstone of scientific method(cf. Popper). As long as the theory of spirits cannot be falsified by science the line between Shamanism and Science will never be gone. However this factors that separate Science and Shamanism apart can still be bridged. As we all know healing both in Science and in Shamanism do have processes. These processes can be studied by science which I think has the greater knowledge to prove things. Once Science has discovered the way shamans heal they can infer scientific methods on the way and methods Shamans perform their healing. Not only that, from what I’ve read like Science, Shamanism can also be studied. Studying Shamanism can be one of the bridges that can unite the two. Another way to bridge the two is by scientist not only studying the Shamans’ methods but also by performing and being one of them. Thus, Scientists can train ecstatically and traditionally for them to have a greater knowledge of how Shamans communicate with spirits. In this ways scientist can perform trances that can make them one of the Shamans and be on the â€Å"shamanic state of consciousness†. These trances will also help them feel and experience how Shamans talk with what they call spirits and how Shamans experience the non-ordinary reality. Lastly, as Scientists engage and be part of shamanic society there they can prove or falsify if Shamanism is either true or just a fiction. In order to bridge these two Scientists who have more knowledge and grasp of experimenting must use themselves as experiment samples for them to achieve what they want. If they have proven that Shamanism can be true then maybe somehow they can make a way to connect the way Shamans perform their methods because they themselves are also Shamans. In this way scientific method will therefore be broader and can be used in Shamanism. Thus, Shamanism can be considered a branch of science.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Taming Of the Shrew Essay Example For Students

Taming Of the Shrew Essay The method Petruchio uses to tame his shrew, Katherina, to put it simply, is reverse psychology, along with starving her and not allowing her to sleep until she acts like a proper lady. His strategy is basic, but his plan takes time to bring about results.  During act two scene one, Petruchio outlines his plan to Baptista. He states that he will say the opposite of what Kate does. Say that she rail, why then Ill tell her plain she sings as sweetly as a nightingale. This is called reverse psychology. At the beginning of act three scene two, it is Katherinas appointed wedding day and her father, Baptista, is seen worrying that Petruchio, the groom to be, will not turn up. It is threatening to become very embarrassing for both Katherina and her whole family. Katherine fears she will become a laughing stock. Now must the world point at poor Katherine. Much later, after Katherina has already left, Petruchio arrives. We will write a custom essay on Taming Of the Shrew specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now He is dressed in tattered and torn clothes, riding upon a sick horse. He looks more like a poor beggar than a man about to be married. This too is part of Petruchios many step plan to tame the shrew. By turning up late, it threatens to embarrass Katherina on her wedding day in front of all that know her. So, Petruchio changes Katherina from a reluctant bride to one who only wishes for her groom to show up. This is a brilliant move. Petruchio refuses to change his clothes. He uses the excuse that there is no time and that he has been away from his bride too long. But where is Kate? I stay too long from her. In the middle of Act three scene two, Tranio starts to work out Petruchios plan. He hath some meaning in his mad attire.  Petruchio makes a mockery of the wedding ceremony, knocking the bible out of the priests hand when smacking him in the face. He throws wine at one of the clergy and loudly kisses Katherina on the mouth. As soon as the ceremony, if it could be called that, is over he states that although the guests assumed that he would stay for the party, he has to leave. This too is part of his plan to tame Katherine. She is shocked and upset by the news of him leaving before the party and asks if she can entreat him to stay. Let me entreat you. This is very polite and is not the language that a shrew would use. So, the taming process has obviously started to take effect. When her efforts to entreat Petruchio to stay fail, she relies on his love for her to keep him at the party. When this too fails, she returns to her shrewish ways and affirms that she will not leave until she pleases herself. Nay then, do what thou canst, I will not go today, no, nor tomorrow, not till I please myself. Kate goes onto say that the guest shall go forward to the bridal dinner. By this she means that she will join them, but Petruchio takes this very literally and acts as if he is only doing what Katherine wishes. They shall go forward, Kate, at thy command. He assumes that she will be joining him and not their guests. He takes Kate away as if he is protecting her from the guests that may force her to attend her party, even though it is at the party that Kate wishes to be and not with Petruchio. Kate is dumbfounded and cannot say anything, because Petruchio, it seems, is doing this all for her. This too is part of Petruchios plan to tame Katherina. He is reacting and acting in the opposite way to which Katherina would expect him to act. .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d , .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .postImageUrl , .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d , .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d:hover , .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d:visited , .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d:active { border:0!important; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d:active , .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5a5144fe0916fe19b1fde40b415e4c6d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: What makes Emily Dickinson EssayWhen speaking to the guests, Petruchio refers to Kate as his possession. She is my goods, my chattels, she is my house, my household stuff my any thing. This gives the idea that Katherina is not a person and cannot think for herself. She is just one of Petruchios possessions.  In the beginning of Act four scene one, Grumio tells Curtis of how Kates horse fell and she fell underneath the horse and was covered in mud. Petruchio, who was there at the time, did nothing to help poor Katherina, but instead beat up Grumio because the horse had stumbled. Katherine went to pull her husband off Grumio. Petruchio swore and Katherine prayed. Perhaps t his might also be part of Petruchios plan. Curtis states that according to what Grumio just told him, Petruchio is more of a shrew than Katherina. By this reckoning he is more shrew than she. Of the pair, one has to be responsible and sensible and since Petruchio is acting so shrewish, Katherina feels that she has to be the responsible and sensible one. This is part of Petruchios taming process.  At the beginning of Act four scene three, Katherina is complaining to Grumio about the way Petruchio is treating her. The more my wrong, the more his spite appears. What, did he marry me to famish me? I am starved for meat, giddy for lack of sleep. To this, Grumio replies with an offer of meat and when she accepts he decides she should not have it because it is too choleric. Grumio obviously knows Petruchios plan. Katherina becomes fed up with Grumio and his nonsense and sends him away, just as Petruchio and Hortensio enter. Petruchio brings meat for Katherina and she quickly eats it with Hortensio. When they have finished, Petruchio tells Katherine that they should leave to her fathers house and dress in fine clothes. When the tailor comes, he brings with him a cap for Katherina, which she likes but Petruchio does not. Fie, fie, tis lewd and filthy. He asks for a bigger cap but Katherina refuses to have it any bigger saying that it is fashionable. This doth fit the time, and gentlewomen wear such caps as these. She is using proper language and referring to herself as a gentlewoman. Therefore Petruchios plan is working. Yet Petruchio does not believe she is gentle yet. When you are gentle, you shall have one too, and not till then. This is too much for Katherine and she finally speaks her mind, telling Petruchio that she is not a child and that she is angry and if she doesnt anything her heart will break. It goes on and Petruchio pretends he has selective hearing to what Katherine says. She is obviously angry with him yet he pretends to think that she is angry with the tailor and when the tailor corrects him, he scolds at him and calls him names. Thou liest, thou thread, thou thimble, thou flea, thou nit, thou winter-cricket thou!  Petruchio tells Kate that they should go to her fathers house first by horse and when they arrive at a certain point, they shall go on by foot and arrive at the destination by dinner time. Katherina does not want to do as Petruchio asks and Petruchio becomes mad and orders that she do what he says. During Act four scene five, Katherine and Petruchio bicker about whether it is the moon or the sun that shines brightly. I say it is the moon that shines so bright. Hortensio advises Katherina to agree with Petruchio or else they will never leave. So Katherina agrees with Petruchio that it is the moon that shines brightly and Petruchio changes his mind and says that it is the sun that shines brightly, so Katherine agrees to this as well. She does not put up a fight and argue any further with Petruchio and she does not become angry or frustrated with him when he changes his opinion, so perhaps she is tamed, or at least she is showing all the signs of being tamed. .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 , .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .postImageUrl , .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 , .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5:hover , .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5:visited , .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5:active { border:0!important; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5:active , .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5 .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1ed511400e60da819d0373a72b3bdfd5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Analysis of Richard Cory EssayDuring Act Five Scene One, Katherina asks her husbands permission to follow the others and he allows her to on the condition that she kisses him. When she refuses, he asks if she is ashamed of him. What, in the midst of the street? What, art thou ashamed of me? Katherine of course answers no and states that Got forbids it and that she is only ashamed to kiss. So, Petruchio proclaims that they shall return home, so Katherina gives in and agrees to kiss Petruchio. He replies with a combination of two proverbs, Better late than never and It is never too late to mend. Better once than never, for never too late.  At some point near the end of Ac t Five Scene Two, Katherina gives her final speech which is addressed to the audience as well as the husbands, but is mainly directed towards the wives of the husbands.